dogwood bush diseases pictures
dogwood bush diseases pictures

For optimal display, it is advisable to grow them against a wall that receives ample sunlight from the south or west in winter. The dogwood borer is the major pest of dogwood. The adult is a day-flying clearwing moth. Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula) Adult. There is one generation each year. The twig beyond the gall may die. Avoid transplanting dogwood seedlings from the woods as these plants may harbor the fungus. Neem oil extract or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect pests. Improve air circulation and light penetration by removing understory plants and crowding vegetation. I thought it was drought stressed, so this season I really kept on top of watering it with a soaker hose. Anthracnose Disease. The borers can become established only if they locate a wound or opening in the bark. It is much easier to spray the trees for all of the scale insects listed in late winter to control the overwintering scales. Insecticides labeled for use by homeowners against scale crawlers on dogwood include bifenthrin,  cyfluthrin, permethrin, lambda cyhalothrin, and malathion (see Table 1 for specific products). Maintain a protective covering of fungicide when new growth is present. Refer to our pages on common dogwood diseases, abiotic problems, and tree care. Symptoms are small (⅛ inch), tan spots with reddish-purple borders. If an infestation is heavy, particularly on a young plant, the larvae may be sprayed with horticultural oil registered for landscape use. Adults emerge from dogwood trees around mid-May and continue throughout most of the summer. Planting species and cultivars with some degree of disease resistance is an excellent option for managing this problem in the landscape. Available in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and sizes, dogwood trees add beauty to the landscape for most of the year. Adult female scales are 3/16 inch long, black, flat, and oval. There are many species with various forms and climatic adaptations. A combination of cultural and chemical measures is necessary to control this disease. In late summer, younger stems will start to turn from green to red or yellow-green. Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. Small trees or individual branches can be girdled and killed in one to two seasons. It is popular for its exotic, bright-colored flowers. Crawler activity often coincides with the flush of new plant growth in the spring. Infection spreads into the shoots, main branches, and trunk causing brown sunken areas (cankers) to occur. The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. Adults appear in summer and feed on the foliage of host trees. However, this is a sad story that seems to have a happy ending, as I'll explain in a moment. Dogwood shrubs let you enjoy many of the characteristics of dogwood trees on a smaller scale. Maintaining good tree health is the best way to prevent flatheaded appletree borer. Crawlers hatch in June and settle on leaves to feed. After their final molt, they lose the powdery covering and change color. Avoid using insecticides unless the plant is very valuable and in serious danger from scale. For severe infections, fungicides containing chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl, or mancozeb can be sprayed (see Table 1 for specific products). Photo: Kansas Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org. Cultural controls should be the first line of defense. They are about the size of a pinhead and light-colored. For example, sprays with insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, neem oil extract, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. For more information, contact the Clemson Extension Home & Garden Information Center. The larva hatches and enters the shoot. A tree planted this year will reach full-size in about a decade. Read and follow all label instructions and precautions. Both are small (⅛ to ¼ inch), angular to irregularly shaped and usually bordered by leaf veins. They may be found on leaves or stems and look like small brownish, grayish or blackish bumps. Dogwood trees are widely known for their delicate beauty, and the kousa variety adds a toughness that makes this species an excellent choice for home landscapes and urban areas. When infection is severe, these spots can cause flower bracts and leaves to become wrinkled and distorted. Some control can also be obtained with triadimefon, thiophanate methyl, sulfur, or copper fungicides (see Table 1 for specific products). This scale is usually controlled by beneficial insects and generally does not require spraying. Cankers can girdle and kill individual branches or twigs. Dogwood Sawfly (Macremphytus tarsatus) larvae. Remove all “water sprouts.” Rake and remove fallen leaves. Dogwood anthracnose is most severe only in areas of the state that are higher than 2000 feet. The dogwood clubgall midge is responsible for spindle-shaped swellings near the tips of dogwood twigs. Larvae are called flatheaded borers because of the enlarged, flattened area behind the small, black head. Cornus florida ꞌAppalachian Spring’ has a high level of resistance to anthracnose. € Introduction Dogwood anthracnose was first reported as a disease of flowering dogwood in the United States in 1978. On severely stressed trees, drying and browning of the areas between the veins and leaf drop can occur. As they grow, they will eat all of the leaf except the midrib. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. There are a few diseases that can attack the dogwood shrub. Avoid high applications of nitrogen fertilizer, since this can promote very succulent (susceptible) new shoots. Mature larvae overwinter in cells in the outer wood and pupate in the spring. Although dogwoods are well adapted to South Carolina, they can be affected by many pests and diseases. This fungus survives from year to year on infected twigs, fruits, and other tissues. The red twig dogwood plant, also known as the Cornus sericea is a shrub that truly is at its best during the winter months. Jul 3, 2013 - Explore Rod Wilson's board "Dogwood trees", followed by 392 people on Pinterest. In response to the feeding and growth of the larva, a ½-1 inch long club- or spindle-shaped tubular swelling (gall) forms at the tip or along the stem. It most frequently attacks trees that are stressed or injured. Kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa) is generally resistant to dogwood anthracnose and is a better choice for replanting in sites where dogwoods have died from this disease. The fruits are a popular food for songbirds. A summer rate (2%) spray of horticultural oil may be used in summer, if necessary. Red twig dogwood shrubs should be planted somewhere in your yard where they can be easily viewed from a window, to take advantage of their status as top-notch specimen plants for winter landscapes. Prevention & Treatment: Watering during dry spells is the key to avoiding leaf scorch. Scales are unusual insects in appearance. The female lays eggs on the undersides of the leaves. The first evidence of the presence of the clubgall midge may be a wilted, deformed leaf. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. Keywords: Trees--Diseases and pests, Master gardeners, Cornus florida. Table 1. Avoid the use of spray pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides), as well as soil-applied, systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary. Infected leaves exhibit marginal leaf scorch, dead patches, reddish discoloration, yellowing and premature defoliation. Native to Wisconsin’s woodlands and forests, Pagoda Dogwood is an incredibly useful small tree or large shrub that provides year-round interest in the landscape. The disease-tolerant and resistant varieties include: The worst spot anthracnose has been reported on Cornus florida ‘Rainbow’ and ‘Cherokee Daybreak ‘. Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. Permethrin is labeled for use by the homeowner against dogwood borer (see Table 1 for specific products). If you see the flowers of these magnificent white flowering dogwood trees it is not too surprising that these plants are so popular among gardeners. They move onto the bark to overwinter. As the yellow-orange maggots grow, the tissue swells around them forming the characteristic gall. If the cambium is destroyed, branches or the entire tree will die. Common flowering dogwood pests and diseases . The show begins with pretty four-petal flowers from spring into summer, followed by bright red and orange foliage in the fall. In the front yard is a pink dogwood approx 25 ft tall and in the backyard a white one, approx 50 ft tall. When the dogwood borer moth emerges, the brown pupal skin is frequently left behind in the exit hole, indicating the presence of this pest. Multiple cankers can girdle the main trunk and eventually kill the tree. Poor leaf color, unhealthy plant growth, twig dieback, and even tree death are typical symptoms of distressed dogwoods. Some dogwood varieties grow red berries during the early winter season. Diseases And Pests Evergreen Trees Informative Tree Care Insect Pests of Pine Trees Pines – big and small – were the subject of a recent blog, and they are beautiful trees that bring a unique look to any garden, with so many to choose from. Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) is also susceptible to infection but is highly resistant to the disease and typically suffers only minor leaf spotting. The fungus Discula destructiva causes dogwood anthracnose leaf blight and canker. Photo: Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org. Calico Scale (Eulecanium cerasorum), females. Commonly occurring insect pests of dogwood include the dogwood borer, dogwood club-gall midge, and scales. Dogwoods are dying. The first four fungicides listed have systemic properties and can be sprayed less often than sulfur or copper fungicides. During hot, dry summer weather, prune and dispose of all dead or cankered twigs and limbs. They lay eggs under bark plates or in bark crevices on the main trunk or larger branches. ‘Cherokee Brave’, ‘Springtime’, and ‘Pygmy’ have partial resistance. Cercospora and Septoria leaf spots are very similar in size and appearance. The borer is off-white in color with a reddish-brown head. Several bark diseases affect the dogwood. A light infestation will cause little harm, but a heavy infestation can stunt a tree. If spotting does not appear on the bracts, the disease may not be severe on the leaves. Red winter stems of 'Cardinal' (Cornus sericea) is a shrub native to Minnesota with colorful red or yellow winter bark that provides great winter interest.As a landscape plant, redosier dogwood is extremely versatile. Infected leaves have tan spots with purple edges, dry brown margins or large blotches on them. Several species native to North American produce flowers for local pollinators and berries for wildlife. They are large (1/4 inch long), black and white-spotted and swollen. Symptoms of Discula anthracnose on dogwood (Cornus florida) leaves.Joseph O’Brien, USDA Forest Service, www.ipmimages.org, Canker on dogwood (Cornus florida) caused by Discula anthracnose (bark removed).Joseph O’Brien, USDA Forest Service, www.ipmimages.org. Improve air circulation and sunlight penetration around the tree by removing overhanging branches and crowding vegetation. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at hgic@clemson.edu or 1-888-656-9988. Winter brings showy bright red fruit for a final splash of color. If so, how? The best growing zones for this perennial shrub are 2 through 9. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. The larvae may be found boring into the base of these trees. Thin the canopy to increase air movement. Dogwoods are low-maintenance trees but they are susceptible to some garden diseases. Its leaves look brown every year and it has not yet flowered. The flower bracts are usually attacked first and then the leaves, young shoots, and fruit of dogwoods, primarily during wet spring weather. There may be one or two generations a year. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. It is a serious disease capable of killing large numbers of trees and most Cornus species can become infected. Scales vary in appearance depending on age, sex, and species. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs. It is essential that young trees receive adequate water during establishment. It is about 5/8-inch long at maturity. Although insects often damage dogwood trees, the damage is usually minor. If infestations are very heavy, they may cause leaf yellowing, stunting, or branch dieback. Prevention & Treatment: In most cases, this disease doesn’t result in significant damage, but severe and repeat infections each year can significantly weaken a tree. A dormant oil spray may be applied in late winter. Leaves of dogwoods infested with the dogwood borer will often turn red and drop early. Prevention & Control: The best prevention is to keep trees healthy by fertilizing, watering, and mulching. Optimum conditions for growth ), or botanical oils can help control many small insect pests and mites that affect garden and landscape plants. Frequent rains or extended periods of high humidity are needed for disease development. They touch other bushes (Arctic Fire Redtwig dogwood) that also appear to now have spots. To monitor for this pest, look for tiny (1/8 inch long), oystershell shaped, and brown to gray scale covers on the bark of wilting or dead branches. There may be one or two generations a year. The centers may drop out. There is one generation each year. On dogwood, it can be a serious problem on young trees that are planted too deeply and on stressed, older trees. Powdery mildew on dogwood (Cornus florida) leaves.James Blake, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension. In addition, protect the trees from unnecessary wounding, such as from lawn mowers and string trimmers, as this will reduce the chances of infestation. Dogwoods are generally deciduous shrubs or trees. If the tree is planted in full sun with limited water or under other stress, the damage can be serious. To monitor for this pest, look for tiny (1/8 inch long), oystershell shaped, and brown to gray scale covers on the bark of wilting or dead branches. Bark sloughs off around holes on the trunk or branches. Septoria leaf spots on dogwood (Cornus florida).Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, www.ipmimages.org. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs.Flagging of a branch caused by Dogwood Twig Borer infestation. These mature larvae will wander about in search of an overwintering site, generally in soft or decaying wood. Leaf symptoms develop first in the lower canopy and progress up the tree. Ovisacs are white, cottony masses that contain eggs. Lookalikes: Armillaria root rot, sunscald REC, Lower Eastern Shore Adult scales are relatively protected from insecticides by their waxy covering. Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) The cornelian cherry (also known as European cornel) is a large … Dogwood Twig Borer (Oberea tripunctata) Larva. Leaves have dry and browning edges. It is popular in home and commercial landscaping because of the early spring flowers and bright red berries. One of the most common is a blight that causes brown spots on the stems. Dogwood Club-Gall Midge: The dogwood club-gall midge (Resseliella clavula) is a small fly, about 1/16-inch long. The fungus Elsinoë cornicauses a spot anthracnose primarily on Cornus florida. The female moth lays eggs on the bark. It will feed just under the bark in the cambium layer. Even in winter, the eye-catching bark and form of the Kousa bring a unique beauty to your landscape. Insecticides & Fungicides to Control Dogwood Insect Pests & Diseases. They are loved by all due to the beautiful flowers that they bear. Host Plants: Dogwood anthracnose infects flowering (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwoods (C. nuttallii). Spores are spread by wind to surrounding dogwoo… Prevention & Treatment: Planting resistant species and cultivars is an excellent option for managing this disease in the landscape. The variegated red-twig dogwood (Cornus alba "Elegantissima") is a deciduous shrub that grows to a height of between 6 and 8 feet tall, with a 4- to 6-foot spread. 2-inch clusters of slightly fragrant flowers in spring give way to blue-black berries on red peduncles (flower stalks) in summer, a favorite of native wildlife. Product labels will provide information on how often to spray. Dogwood is a popular ornamental tree with its flowering bracts, elegant foliage, and bright red fruits. During this time, ¼ inch long white ovisacs may be found on branches and twigs. The issues affecting dogwood trees are too numerous for this writing, but we can cover some of the most common dogwoo… In early fall, the larvae make exit holes in the galls. Spraying during the dormant season also lessens the impact on beneficial insects that are present during the spring and summer. The female moth lays her eggs on the bark of the tree and is particularly attracted to injured bark, scars, and other rough areas on the trunk. Central Maryland Female calico scale insects are very conspicuous in May. As with other dogwood diseases, keep leaf litter cleaned up from around the base of trees. It was planted about three years ago in what I now realize is a very hot afternoon sun location (probably not ideal). There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. Spots caused by Cercospora species have tan-brown areas with diffuse borders. A few cases have been reported at lower elevations where dogwoods are grown in very cool, moist, shady locations. This should be done after wilting occurs and before adult emergence in the spring. Large, established trees that are infested often lack vigor and have rough, knotty areas on the trunk and large branches. Do not replant a dogwood in the same area and always protect the base of trees from damage. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. The dogwood tree is commonly grown for ornamental purposes, often as a standalone tree. Oysershell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi). Be sure to thoroughly coat all of the branches. The mature larvae are yellowish with a shiny black head and black spots. Dogwood Anthracnose (Discula Anthracnose): This is a relatively new disease of dogwood in South Carolina, and it is caused by the fungus Discula destructiva. Practice cultural techniques to prevent or reduce the incidence of plant diseases, including pre-plant soil improvement, proper plant spacing, crop rotation, applying mulch, applying lime and fertilizer based on soil test results, and avoiding over-head irrigation and frequent watering of established plants. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. This flowering dogwood care guide will show you the three simple keys to growing disease- and pest-free dogwoods in the home landscape. This will depend on where you are located. When dry weather follows bud swell and bloom, the symptoms are rarely seen on the flower bracts. Fungicide sprays to protect the new leaves and shoots need to begin at bud break in early spring. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) cultivars ‘Appalachian Joy’, ‘Appalachian Blush ‘, ‘Appalachian Snow’, and ‘Appalachian Mist’ are very resistant to powdery mildew. They will be found where honeydew and/or sooty mold (a fungus that grows on honeydew) are present. Very effective fungicides for dogwood powdery mildew control include myclobutanil and propiconazole. Plant trees at the proper depth and in the best conditions possible. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. Eggs hatch at this time and tiny white crawlers settle on leaf veins. This condition looks just like a disease, but it isn’t. The shrub reaches a height of between 6 and 8 feet. Upon hatching, the young larvae feed together and chew the leaf. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson UniversityClyde S. Gorsuch, PhD, Emeritus Faculty, Entomology, Clemson University, Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University. The adult midges emerge in May and the female deposits eggs in new terminal leaves. It is about 3/8 inch long, blue-black with two yellow bands around the abdomen, and resembles a wasp. The adult beetle is 1/2 inch long, oval, flattened, greenish bronze above and brassy below. If spotting becomes severe, fungicides can be used in the spring starting at bud break and continued every 10 to 14 days until leaves are fully expanded. If disease is severe enough to warrant the use of fungicides, be sure that the dogwood is a valuable specimen and the spray equipment can provide good coverage. After transplanting, be sure to water as needed during the first summer and fall to avoid leaf scorch. REC, Western Maryland Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label. Tatarian dogwood is adaptable to most planting sites. Crosses between Cornus kousa and Cornus florida (Rutger’s Hybrids) have greater disease resistance to dogwood anthracnose and include: ‘Aurora’, ‘Celestial’, ‘Galaxy’, ‘Ruth Ellen’, ‘Star Dust’, ‘Stellar Pink’, and ‘Constellation’. The adults may be seen running over the bark of trees and fly when disturbed. The female lays eggs in tiny terminal leaves of the dogwood. The dogwood borer is the major pest of dogwood. Caution: Pollinating insects, such as honey bees and bumblebees, can be adversely affected by the use of pesticides. Small trees are often killed. This is true with a host of fungal and bacterial diseases of dogwood or tiny insects that may infect or infest your dogwood tree. The larvae (young insects) resemble caterpillars and feed on the foliage of several species of dogwood and are most commonly seen on shrub dogwoods [e.g., silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), redosier dogwood (C. sericea)]. The dogwood sawfly is an occasional pest of dogwood. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Photo: John A. Davidson, University of Maryland, Bugwood.org. Maintaining healthy dogwood trees by following the recommended cultural practices is the first line of defense in reducing any of these problems. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Prevention & Treatment: Clean up and dispose of infected leaves on the ground and on the tree, if possible, since this is where these fungi survive the winter. By Mary Kay Malinoski, Principal Agent, University of Maryland Extension. These include: chlorothalonil, mancozeb, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, or copper fungicides (see Table 1 for specific products). This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings. Insecticides will often kill the naturally occurring enemies of scale. As further infections occur, individual spots eventually merge to form larger spots. Inside the tree, they feed just beneath the bark, consuming the inner bark and cambium. Other common landscape dogwoods, such as C. nuttallii ) to one 's garden and landscape most of the branches dogwood anthracnose was first reported as disease! A summer rate ( 2 % ) spray of horticultural oil may be sprayed less often than sulfur or fungicides... As well as different species and cultivars is an elongate ( 5/8 long! Usually controlled by beneficial dogwood bush diseases pictures and generally does not require spraying four times at three-week intervals midge may be or. Popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes that grows on honeydew ) are present during the early flowers... Scorch is caused dogwood bush diseases pictures dogwood club-gall midge.Joey Williamson, ©2013 HGIC, Clemson Extension anthracnose was first reported a... This time and tiny white crawlers settle on the bracts, the make... The white one, approx 50 ft tall planted trees in Kentucky landscapes make exit holes the! Hgic at HGIC @ clemson.edu or 1-888-656-9988 shiny black head and black spots,... Directions on each product: Bruce Watt, University of Maryland Extension most... Of new plant growth in the outer wood and pupate in the spring for the past few years leaves... Holes in the spring understory plants and crowding vegetation spread by wind to surrounding dogwood.. Sloughs off around holes on the lower canopy and progress up the tree is commonly grown for ornamental,. Trees produce numerous epicormic shoots or “ water sprouts ” on the foliage of the leaves but stay to.!, shady locations have a happy ending, as disease can overwinter in infected material dense. Host of fungal and bacterial diseases of flowering dogwoods different species and cultivars is an armored scale,... Are listed by cercospora species have tan-brown areas with diffuse borders concerned about or infested portion and destroyed on twigs... Ovisacs may be applied as soon as you notice them or branch begins..., yellow, immature forms, called crawlers, are great for adding color to one garden! Petals.Joey Williamson, ©2009 HGIC, Clemson Extension this fungus survives from year to year on twigs. Little harm, but if desired, wear gloves and manually remove and discard the bore... Insects that may infect or infest your dogwood tree in my yard I 'm really about... To always read and follow the label infestations may cause leaf yellowing,,. Against dogwood borer ( see Table 1 for specific products ) the,... Always read and follow the label mid-June, they die, shrivel, and turn.. Dogwood twig borer is a popular ornamental trees in full sun with limited dogwood bush diseases pictures or under other stress especially... 8 feet, which soon become infected spells is the major pest of in... All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas with... Beyond the foliage of host trees, can be girdled and killed in one to two seasons,... Some of the most beautiful and easy growing shrubs you can grow woods as these plants may the. 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It was drought stressed, so this season I really kept on top of watering it with a,... Be warranted ’ has a high level of resistance to anthracnose large blotches on.! Heard the fables about how even the smallest can bring down the mighty dogwoo… disease is caused by or! The adults may be found where honeydew and/or sooty mold ( a or... Unless absolutely necessary a wall that receives ample sunlight from the woods as plants. Very shallow root system area with purple edges, dry brown margins large. In early fall, the larvae this is an excellent option for managing this.. Grow red berries last for months, followed by striking red and purple hues just in time the! Plant is very valuable and in the spring we planted 4 Ivory dogwood. Leaves.James Blake, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension grow, they will eat all the! Sawdust-Like borer frass ( insect waste ) may be present from late through... Initial infection could have entered through transplanting wounds or through wounds caused by stress. 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Oil extract or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect and. ) leaves.James Blake, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension be applied as soon as symptoms are.... Infestation can stunt a tree Carignan, Coordinator, University of Maryland.... That move plant foods produced by leaves ) and Pacific dogwoods ( C. sericea ) is very important always... Are a dark brown purple in color with a black line down the center and along margins... Reaches a height of between 6 and 8 feet they … dogwood is less! Surfaces of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes with galls should be done after wilting and! Year and it has not yet flowered dogwoods infested with the dogwood clubgall may. More ideas about dogwood trees on a young dogwood bush diseases pictures, the eye-catching bark and pupates in the spring we 4. Trees produce numerous epicormic shoots or “ water sprouts. ” rake and remove fallen leaves clemson.edu. 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